How To Read From a File in C++

In your programming journey, there will come a time when you’ll want to start working with real-world data. This kind of data is typically stored in files on disk. Since reading from files involves interacting with your operating system, it amounts to a rather complex task. In this article, we’ll look at C++ streams, file handling, and three different methods for reading data from a file into a C++ program. 

If you come from a high-level programming language like Python, reading a file into a program seems like a simple enough task. You open the file, read its contents and close it. Working with a file might take up one or two lines of your code. In C++, the workflow of reading a file is a bit more complex — there is the added step of reading to or from a stream object. To understand how our C++ programs interact with files, let us now take a look at the concept of streams in C++. 



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How To Print in C++

Most coding revolves around inputting data into something like an integrated development environment (IDE) to create a program that accomplishes a task. However, you’ll likely need that program to output data at some point. In this guide, we’ll look at how to print text in C++, covering ways to print a string and best format them.

What Is a String?

A C++ string is a variable that stores a sequence of characters, usually representing a word or phrase. We can call upon this variable later for use in our program by using the string command. If we’re looking to output a string, we can type the string we want to print directly into our program without first storing it as a variable. Here is an example:



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C++ Sets Explained

Think of your favorite sports team. All of its players are unique and we can order them by their jersey numbers. We can refer to the players directly by name or by their number. 

A similar concept exists in programming: We can organize a set number of unique values based on a predetermined order. In C++, this type of data structure is called a set.

In this article, we’ll explore what C++ sets are and how to use them, before presenting scenarios in which we would and would not use sets. 

What Is a Set in C++?

A set is a data structure that stores unique elements of the same type in a sorted order. Each value is a key, which means that we access each value using the value itself. With arrays, on the other hand, we access each value by its position in the container (the index). Accordingly, each value in a set must be unique. 



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Fun With CSS Code Examples

Learning a new skill can be a great experience but it takes time and you have to stick with it.. Every now and then it is a great idea to sit back and have a bit of fun with the material. In this article, you will do just that with some fun CSS code examples.

Topics like how to make text bold or size an image have merits in design. As do many of the other topics covered in the Udacity CSS Content Hub. However, this post will deal with simple bits of fun you can have when learning to use HTML and CSS. 

With no goal in mind other than having a good time, get ready for some interesting CSS code examples to play around with.



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What Is Hadoop?

Over the past decade, big data has had a tremendous impact on business — yet we’re still just scratching the surface. To move forward, we need to have the right tools in place to manage big data’s potential. In this article, we’ll present Hadoop as one solution to the problem of storing and analyzing big data.



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SQL Aggregate Functions — AVG, COUNT, DISTINCT, MAX, MIN, SUM

Relational databases store information in tables — with columns that are analogous to elements in a data structure and rows which are one instance of that data structure. The SQL language is used to interact with that database information.

The SQL aggregate functions — AVG, COUNT, DISTINCT, MAX, MIN, SUM — all return a value computed or derived from one column’s values, after discarding any NULL values. The syntax of all these functions is:

SELECT AGGREGATE_FUNCTION( 'column_name' )
FROM TABLE_NAME

The aggregate functions are:

functionreturns
AVG()the mean average of the elements in the column
COUNT()the total number of elements in the column
DISTINCT()the number of distinct values across the column
MAX()the largest-value element in the column
MIN()the smallest-value element in the column
SUM()the arithmetic total of all values in the column


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