In your programming journey, there will come a time when you’ll want to start working with real-world data. This kind of data is typically stored in files on disk. Since reading from files involves interacting with your operating system, it amounts to a rather complex task. In this article, we’ll look at C++ streams, file handling, and three different methods for reading data from a file into a C++ program.
If you come from a high-level programming language like Python, reading a file into a program seems like a simple enough task. You open the file, read its contents and close it. Working with a file might take up one or two lines of your code. In C++, the workflow of reading a file is a bit more complex — there is the added step of reading to or from a stream object. To understand how our C++ programs interact with files, let us now take a look at the concept of streams in C++.
Most coding revolves around inputting data into something like an integrated development environment (IDE) to create a program that accomplishes a task. However, you’ll likely need that program to output data at some point. In this guide, we’ll look at how to print text in C++, covering ways to print a string and best format them.
What Is a String?
A C++ string is a variable that stores a sequence of characters, usually representing a word or phrase. We can call upon this variable later for use in our program by using the string command. If we’re looking to output a string, we can type the string we want to print directly into our program without first storing it as a variable. Here is an example:
Think of your favorite sports team. All of its players are unique and we can order them by their jersey numbers. We can refer to the players directly by name or by their number.
A similar concept exists in programming: We can organize a set number of unique values based on a predetermined order. In C++, this type of data structure is called a set.
In this article, we’ll explore what C++ sets are and how to use them, before presenting scenarios in which we would and would not use sets.
What Is a Set in C++?
A set is a data structure that stores unique elements of the same type in a sorted order. Each value is a key, which means that we access each value using the value itself. With arrays, on the other hand, we access each value by its position in the container (the index). Accordingly, each value in a set must be unique.
Though practically ancient in computer science terms, C and C++ remain two of the most popular programming languages in use today. These languages have laid the foundation for many other languages and are great options for starting your coding journey.
Read on to discover whether it makes more sense to begin your learning with C or C++.
Navigation within a website is one of the most important aspects of design. Showing where the navigation is and presenting it in an easy-to-use method is a combination that can be tricky without the right tools.
Thankfully, CSS has various options for just that issue. In this short tutorial, you will learn how to create a CSS dropdown menu.
A wonderful aspect of CSS is how much it lets you explore your creative concepts while providing useful HTML page design. There are some common elements of a CSS dropdown menu used across the board.
However, that does not mean all CSS dropdown options have to be the same. In fact, they don’t all even have to be menus.