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Lesson Acronyms and Vocabulary

Lesson 1

Health Informatics (HIT): the set of tools needed to facilitate electronic

Bioinformatics: computational modeling of complex intracellular biochemical processes

Electronic Medical Record (EMR): an electronic record used by a licensed professional care provider

Personal Health Record (PHR): typically a web page where health data and information related to their care is maintained by the patient

Health Information Exchange (HIE): the sharing of digital health information by the various stakeholders involved, including the patient

Chronic disease: medical problems that can't be cured and for which the goal of treatment is management to avoid long term complications

Medicare: the federally operated program to provide healthcare services to US citizens over the age of 65

Acute disease: medical problems that either go away on their own or can be cured with a limited course of treatment

Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs): an organization that provides managed healthcare on a prepaid basis. Employers with 25 or more employees must cover federally certified HMO options if they offer traditional healthcare options.

Care Coordinator: a professional who engages with and monitors patients between visits to what is often a patient centered medical home model practice

Gatekeeper: a provider (usually a primary care physician in an HMO) with overall responsibility for a patient’s care and who controls access to specialist physicians

EMR - Electronic Medical Record

PHR - Personal Health Record

HIE - Health Information Exchange

PCP - Primary Care Physician

HMO - Health Maintenance Organizations

Lesson 2

e-Prescribing: the electronic ordering of prescription medications, ideally through an EHR, and the transmission of that order to a connected pharmacy of the patient’s choosing

Pay for Performance (P4P): an approach to pay for healthcare that rewards physician performance against certain defined quality metrics

Accountable Care Organization (ACO): MEDICARE’s outcomes-based contracting approach

Privacy: assuring that clinical data is only shared according to patient specified preferences

Security: limiting access to data to only those who are authorized to access it

Trust: assuring that data is being shared with the person or entity with whom it is supposedly being shared

Meaningful Use: a set of usage requirements defined in three stages by ONC under which eligible professionals are paid for adopting a certified EHR. The three stages are often referred to as MU1, MU2, and MU3

HIT or HITech - Health Information Technology

Provider: health professionals, including physicians, nurse practitioners, physicians’ assistants, that are engaged in direct patient care

International Classification of Disease (ICD): the World Health Organization’s almost universally used standard codes for diagnoses. The current version is ICD-10, but ICD-9 is used in most US institutions. The conversion date is October 1, 2014

PGP - Physician Group Practice

ACO - Accountable Care Organization

EHR - Electronic Health Record

ICD - International Classification of Disease

Lesson 3

eHealth Exchange: a set of standards, services, and policies that enable secure nationwide, Internet-based HIE using CONNECT or one of the commercial HIE products that support eHealth Exchange

eHealth Initiative (eHI): a non-profit whose members seek to improve the quality of healthcare by promoting the use of technology and information

Interoperability: the ability of diverse information systems to seamlessly share data and coordinate on tasks involving multiple systems

CONNECT: ONC supported open source software for managing the centralized model of HIE

Federated Architecture: an HIE architecture in which sensitive health data remains stored in the source systems

Hybrid architecture: an HIE architecture that combines centralized and federated data storage

Centralized architecture: a form of HIE in which data is aggregated and stored centrally in order to provide value-added services

Health Information Systems Programme (HISP): a component of Direct that provides a provider directory, secure e-mail addresses, and public-key infrastructure (PKI)

IHIE - Indiana Health Information Exchange

HISP - Health Information Systems Programme

Lesson 4

Privacy Consent Models: approaches to obtaining patient consent for sharing clinical data

Data Segmentation: technologies for dividing health data into logical groups in order to obtain patient consent for sharing of some parts of their health data

Data Segmentation Models: approaches to obtaining patient consent to use specific subsets of their health data

Public Key: the public part of the special pair of numbers used to encrypt documents using PKI

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI): a widely used system for protection of documents, messages, and other data that rests on a pair of public and private keys to allow for a variety of use cases

Private Key: the protected (known only to its owner) part of the special pair of numbers used to encrypt documents using PKI

Registration Authority (RA): an entity that collects information for the purpose of verifying the identity of an individual or organization and produces a certificate request

Certificate Authority (CA): an entity that digitally signs certificate requests and issues X.509 digital certificates that link a public key to attributes of its owner

Lesson 5A

Semantics: the meaning of words or expressions

Syntactics: the structure of words or expressions

Current Procedural Terminology (CPT): the American Medical Association’s standard for coding medical procedures

Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC): the Regenstrief Institute’s standard for laboratory and clinical observations

National Drug Code (NDC): the Food and Drug Administration’s numbering system for all medications commercially available in the United States

Systemized Nomenclature for Medicine (SNOMED): a comprehensive, hierarchical healthcare terminology system

Continuity of Care Document (CCD): an XML-based patient summary based on the CDA architecture

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): a format for electronic messaging that utilizes cryptic but compact notation primarily to support computer-to-computer commercial information exchange

Extensible Markup Language (XML): a widely used standard for machine- and human-readable electronic documents and the language used to de.ne CDA templates

CPT - Current Procedural Terminology

LOINC - Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes

NDC - National Drug Code

SNOMED - Systemized Nomenclature for Medicine

CCD - Continuity of Care Document

EDI - Electronic Data Interchange

Lesson 5B

HL7 Development Framework (HDF): the framework used by HL7 to produce specifications for data, messaging process, and other standards

Clinical Document Architecture (CDA): an XML-based markup standard intended to specify the encoding, structure, and semantics of clinical documents

Consolidated CDA (CCDA): the second revision of HL7’s CDA that attempts to introduce more standardized templates to facilitate information sharing (a mandate of Meaningful Use 2)

Arden Syntax: an approach to specifying medical knowledge and clinical decision support rules in a form that is independent of any electronic health record (EHR) and thus sharable across hospitals

Clinical Information Modeling Initiative (CIMI): an independent collaboration of major health providers to improve the interoperability of healthcare information systems through shared and implementable clinical information models

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS): the component of the Department of Health and Human Services that administers the Medicare and Medicaid programs

Fast Health Interoperable Resources (FHIR): an HL7 initiative that seeks to use modern web standards and technologies to simplify and expedite real world interoperability solutions

HL7 - Health Level-7

RIM - Reference Information Model

CDA - Clinical Document Architecture

OID - Object Identifier

CIMI - Clinical Information Modeling Initiative

CMS - Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

Lesson 7

Patient Portal: a secure website that gives patients access to personal health information. Data typically include: recent provider visits, hospital discharge summaries, and clinical information such as medications and lab results. More advanced portals provide functions like e-mail to the provider, appointment scheduling, and prescription renewal requests

Blue Button: an ASCII text-based standard for heath information sharing first introduced by the Veteran’s Administration to facilitate access to records stored in VistA by their patients

Blue Button +: a newer Blue Button format that provides both human (e.g. text) and machine readable (e.g. XML) formats

Lesson 8

Quality Reporting Document Architecture (QRDA): an XML standard for reporting quality metrics usually in response to an HQMF query

Lesson 9

hQuery: an ONC-funded, open source effort to develop a generalized set of distributed queries across diverse EHRs for such purposes as clinical research. It is now part of the more comprehensive Query Health Project initiated by ONC

i2b2 (Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside): a scalable query framework for exploration of clinical and genomic data for research to design targeted therapies for individual patients with diseases having genetic origins

PopMedNet: a technology for reporting population level data from diverse and distributed sources

Distributed Query: a request for specific data from diverse and distributed sources (e.g. HQMF)

Distributed Query Standards: standards to request and receive specified data from diverse and distributed sources

Health Quality Measure Format (HQMF): an XML-based standard for specifying a query for a health quality metric

Lesson 10

Decision Trees: directed (no repetition) graphs to model a one-way decision making process

Markov Decision Process (MDP):a series of probability-driven decision trees where the output of each is the input to the next

Markov Models: decision trees that use recursion (events can repeat), represent time and may, optionally, have memory of past events/decisions

Discrete Event Simulation: a model in which entities have attributes and can wait in queues for resources

Agent-based models: agents represent "actors" in a process and can have a rich set of attributes that allow them to make decisions about how to communicate or interact with each other and their environment

Process mining: inferring overall processes from discrete data collected from/about events that are part of the process