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Parallel Processing

Hello and welcome to this lesson on multi-threaded programming. This lesson begins with a brief review of parallel programming in general and moves on to discuss multi-threaded programming in particular. It uses the POSIX threads library as the conical example, though the same principles apply to most all threads libraries. To motivate parallel programming, consider the following task. You're given a set of webpages, some of which link to each other. We'll draw this using a standard abstraction of a directed graph, where outgoing edges represent links. So webpage A here contains a link to webpage B. And our goal is to figure out, how many links our website, say U, has pointing to it. This is something that a search engine might do to help figure out how popular a website is. Now, there's no way to know whether another web page has a link to our web page in it without looking at it. So, in one way or another, we're going to need to read all of the web pages in our collection. And if we try to do this with a single processor, this could take a long time. First, I have to read webpage A then webpage B, etc. Thankfully, this task is highly paralyzable. That is, there is nothing about my processing of A ie, counting how many links it has to website U that affects how I'm going to process website B or website C. So, I can easily divide up the web pages among, say, three CPUs. Let's get these over here to CPU one, these to CPU two, and these to CPU 3. Now, we can let each CUP count up, in its sub group, how many links it has to you, and then we can just add these units up to get our final answer. Returning to our time graph, we see that with three CPUs, we only need 1 3rd of the time, potentially, with n CPUs we would only need 1 nth of the time. It's important to realize that we're doing the same amount of work here. Suppose that in our original thread, we first process the website assigned to CPU one, then those assigned to CPU two, and then those assigned to CPU three. Well, in parallel programming, we've cut this one long strand of computation into three shorter strands and arranged them in parallel by giving them to three seperate CPUs. This, of course, is the ideal case for parallel programming. Now of course, in real life, we don't always get as many processors as we want, they aren't always available. And given that our application will likely be running on the same machine as others, we don't know exactly how many processors we will have access to. But by expressing our algorithim in this way, we can take advantage of the processors that we do have and thus make our algorithms run faster.

Parallelizable Tasks

This leads us to our first question, which of the following tasks is parallelizable? Mowing the lawn, playing the piano, cooking a chicken, rice, peas dinner, or reading a novel? Check all that apply.

Parallelizable Tasks

And the answer is, the first and the third. Mowing the lawn is easily parallelizable. I can take one part, you another, and we'll get it done in half the time. Playing the piano, I would say, is not parallelizable. Sure, I might be able to play the right hand and you the left, but the song isn't going to finish any faster. Cooking dinner is clearly parallelizable. We don't wait for the rice to cook before putting the chicken in the oven. Lastly, reading a novel in parallel would be pretty difficult. You might be able to read one part and I another, and then we could explain it to each other, but I don`t think that counts

Asynchronous Computation

Even if you know that your application will only run on a single core single CPU, it can still be useful to express parallelism in your programs. In fact, almost every time you load a web page, your browser is making something called an asynchronous request back to the server for more information that exploits a certain kind of parallelism. You see, the web server rarely sends all the information for a web page in response to your initial request. Instead, it sends a kind of outline for the page. That includes other URL's where your browser can find the details. To get these details your browser then sends other HTTP requests back to the server, for example, we might need a style sheet and also an image to help fill out the website. Now if we were to implement this in a naive synchronous way our program might run for a while, but when it discovers that it needs a CSS file from the server it would make the HTTP request And then pause part way to get the response back. After receiving the response it could then, process the CSS file, and then continue with work, until it discovers that it needs image file. Make that request, wait til it receives it, and then process that image file. Clearly this is inefficient. There is no sense in making the browser, and hence the user, wait for a response from the server While there was more work to be done in reading and rendering the original request. This is why requests back to the server are made asynchronously. And this is really just a fancy word meaning that we get to continue our program without having to wait for a web request or sometimes a system call to complete. So an asynchronous approach, we would begin by processing the HTML profile just as we did in the naive approach. But when we find that we need to request a CSS page, we do so in a new thread. This allows our original thread to continue processing a HTML file and discover that he also needs to request a PNG file, again he will do this in a new thread. When he gets this CSS file back from the server the requesting thread can process it. And when he gets back the p and g file, the requesting thread can also process that. And the end result is that we finished loading the page much faster. Now remember, we're still assuming that we only have one CPU. This means that the computation that the naive approach did, say this red portion here, can't run in parallel with the other parts of the processing. They still have to take turns. Nevertheless, because we weren't idle while we waited for the web server, as we were in the naive approach, we've made our page load faster by always giving the CPU something to do. And it's the programming abstraction of threads that makes it possible to achieve, both, this behavior, as well as the true parallel processing that we discussed earlier.


Here's a questin to test your understanding. Which of the following are indicators that your application might benefit from the use of threads? You have multiple cores and part of the program can be run without knowing the outcome of another part. Code can be broken down into procedure. Or, your program asks a slower entity, may it be a database, web server, or a file system, for information while there's other work to be done. Check all that apply.


And the answer is, the first and the last. The first case is our original example, by counting how many webpages point to our site. The third, is like our second example. There's no sense in having the process wait on some blocking call, while there's other work to be done. Option two however, merely being able to break code down into procedures, is not a good indication of parallelism.

Process Thread Relationship

To understand threads more deeply, it's important to have a clear picture of a traditional process and its address space. Typically, at the lower addresses, a process will have the instructions followed by literals, that is values in the code, then statically allocated memory, really, global variables, and then the heap. Which will grow upwards. And then at the top of the address space and working its way down, we have the current stack of a process. Remember that the stack includes all the information local to a procedure. Parameters, local variables, and the address of the instruction to return to when the current procedure is over. In a multithreaded environment, each thread has it's own stack, but it shares everything else with the original main thread of the process. So, from a certain perspective, a thread acts like an entire process unto itself, and hence threaded programming isn't much different from a traditional programming. The difference comes from the fact that part of the memory is shared. On the one hand, this makes it very easy for threads to communicate. But it also means that extra care is needed to make sure that the threads coordinate as they use this memory. I should point out as well, that one can do parallel programming without having multiple threads. Each parallelizable task could have it's own process with it's own address space. And it could communicate with the other processes through message passing. In fact if we wanted to take advantage of a distributed system, where each processor has it's own separate physical memory, we would be forced to use this approach. As we think about multi-threaded programming, however, the paradigm explored in this lesson, is more appropriate to think of a shared memory system, where we have multiple cores sharing a common piece of memory.

A Pthreads Example

Here's a very simple threaded program that uses POSIX threads, or p-threads as the library is also known. We'll discuss POSIX threads for the remainder of the lesson, but most of the concepts will apply to all thread libraries. The entry point for our process is main, as always. And main will spawn two new threads, t1 and t2 which will enter at the procedures f1 and f2 respectively. That's why we passed the function pointer as we create these threads. These functions become like the main of our other threads. And as we see, these threads are going to print out a message over and over that says that they are the better thread. Notice that main we have this join method. We'll discuss this a little more later, but basically this mean that the thread is going to wait for thread one to finish before it goes any further. And then join with thread two means that it will wait for thread two to finish before going any further.

What Will Happen

So, actually this is a quiz. What will happen when we run this code? Is it that thread one will seize control and print that thread one is better forever? Will thread two seize control and print thread two is better forever? Will the threads print their messages alternately, or is the order of prints indeterminant?

What Will Happen

And answers that the order of prints is indeterminate. Exactly when we switch from one process to another is determined by the threads library in the OS. We haven't exercised any control over switching here in our program, so we can't make any assumptions about the order in which these things will run. It ma be that thread 1 will print 5 times and then thread 2 will print three. Then thread one will print once again, or thread two might print two times, then thread one print fours times, etc. We don't know and go programming here means assuming the worst.

Code Changes

Now, suppose that instead of letting each thread have its own local variable, we create a single global variable for who's better. How does this change affect the program's behavior? Will it create a compilation error? Is it that a seg fault will occur when the second thread accesses this global variable? Will the threads eventually agree on who's better? Or, does the behavior of the program not change at all?

Code Changes

The answer, is that the threads will eventually agree on who's better. Before, each method had its own copy of the variable in its stack. Now, the threads share the variable via the global memory. In fact, this is a common way for threads to communicate. Because who's better is a shared variable, it must have the same value in all the threads. Looking back at the code, we see that this sets off a race condition, only in this case, the winner is the second thread to reach the assignment statement. Suppose that thread one reaches the assignment first. Then he sets who's better to one, and it's possible that he gets to print out that he's better a few times. But eventually thread two will seize control, change the value of who's better to two, and then from then on, they will both agree. That thread two is better. Now I've treated this as all fun, and games, but in reality this situation where we have two threads trying to write to the same memory can create some very serious [INAUDIBLE]. And it's particularly bad when the order in which rights happen is indeterminate as it depends on the choices of the schedulers, and the library library, and the OS make, and maybe let that affect the output of our program

Joinable and Detached Threads

Now if you've been actively thinking about how threads work so far in this lesson, you may be wondering how does the memory for a thread get cleaned up after it is finished, or where does its return value go, or how can I make sure the thread has finished its work before I let the main thread terminate? We'll answer all these questions by looking at the distinction between joinable and detached threads. Let's start by talking about what makes a thread terminate. We'll draw the main thread here on the left, our thread here on the right. And maybe there are some other threads in between. There are really two cases. First, the entire process will terminate if any thread makes a call to exit or if main reaches the end of its code, it's or executes a return statement. Again this will kill all threads associated with the process. The second way our thread might terminate, is if he himself calls either pthread-exit or executes a return statement. The distinction between joinable and and detached threads is important for the second case here. A thread can either be created in a detached state, or detached later with the procedure call. When the detached thread reaches the end of its execution, its memory is cleaned up right away, and any return value just disappears. At least, no other thread has a way of getting at it. Moreover, we have to be careful that main doesn't reach the end of its execution, and execute a return statement, before the thread is done with its work. As seen in point 1, if main returns, then the whole process terminates. So if we want to keep this detached thread going, we have to terminate main with a special call to pthread exit. Joinable threads, y contrast, don't get destroyed right away when they finish. Instead, they stick around until another thread joins them. This other thread makes a call to thread join, specifying the thread. And also an address where the return value of the joinable thread will get stored. This call blocks, until the joinable thread is finished. Though it's okay too if it's finished already. So it's okay for the joined call to be made first. Before the join thread is finished. Having main join with other threads is a common way to make sure that main doesn't finish before the other threads, and kill them all via exit method one. By default, threads are joinable in the p threads library.

Joinable Threads

To illustrate how joinable threads work, let's take a look at a very simple program. We first create a thread, and then we can't be sure what's going to happen next. Perhaps the main thread will keep control and print his hello message, or perhaps the created thread will get control and print his hello message. It's indeterminate. In any case, however, the main thread is going to execute this join procedure. It specifies which thread it wants to join and gives an address where the return value can be passed. Only when the created thread is finished will the pthread_join call complete. So we can be sure that Done will be printed last.

What Will the Output be

Let's take a look at another example program. Look at the program carefully and tell me what its output will be. Will this program create a segmentation fault? Will it print out null, the empty string? Will it print out a message from the created thread? Or will it complain about how a joinable thread is not joined?

What Will the Output be

The answer is null. The program creates a second thread, but this thread first sleeps. Hence we can count on the main thread printing out the current value of msg, which we had just set to null. And then, we can also count on exiting and terminating the whole program before the thread_proc call here gets to do anything.

Thread Patterns

Threads can have many different relationship patterns. For much of the rest of the unit, we will look at an example of the producer consumer pattern. Before going into that however, I want to put it in context by taking a broader view of possible thread relationships. To give our thread something to do, we'll imagine that we are servicing some requests that come through a queue. In the team model, we have a pool of worker threads that all look in the queue, fetch the next request, and service it. This idea of a worker pool is common to many patterns. The costs of creating a new thread are fairly high, so rather than spending time creating and destroying threads, applications will simply let the threads wait around until there is work for them to do. A model similar to the team model is the dispatcher model. Here instead of having a whole team of threads constantly looking at our queue and possibly creating some contention, we have a single dispatcher thread looking at the queue. He finds an available worker and passes the request off to the worker to be serviced. Instead of dividing up the work by requests, it's also possible to divide it up by subtask. This is the strategy employed in the pipeline model. One thread DQs a request, does part of the work, and then passes it on to another thread who does part of the work, passes it on, etc. So, all three of these models are commonly used.

Producer Consumer Pattern

One of the most common design patterns for multithreaded applications is the producer consumer model. This can be viewed as a special case of one of the models discussed before, if you like. To motivate our discussion, we'll use a tracking application. Here's our camera. Maybe it's monitoring the number of people on a subway platform to help route trains, or something like that. You can then break the computation down into two pieces. One, is to get the picture from the camera into the memory. We'll call this the producer task. And the other task, is to analyze the picture to figure out where all the people are, and pass this information on to the training planner, or whoever may need it. We'll call this, the consumer task. Now for this scenario, suppose the images are available from the camera every 33 milliseconds. We want to get all of them, so we're going to have a thread whose job is just to copy the frame from the camera, into computer memory. And let's say that the image processing to find the people is variable, taking somewhere between it were more than 33, we could put more consumer threads here to do the work. Because of the variability in the time it takes to process the image, we need a place in which to store images that our consumer thread is not yet ready to handle. And for this, we use a ring buffer. Each division here represents memory for our frame from the camera. The ones that haven't been consumed yet, I've colored in red. Now we should imagine the producer and consumer threads chasing each other around this ring, with the producer one writing frames, making them red, and the consumer one running behind, turning them back to white. That is, empty or processed. Though of course the consumer will never pass the producer.

What is the Problem With This Code

We'll start with a naive attempt to implement our tracking application. This digitized procedure here, represents the producer method and the tracker is the consumer one. This if statement is intended to stop the digitizer from wrapping all the way around the queue and overriding a frame before the tracker has had a chance to process it. This if statement is intended to stop the tracker to work all the way around the queue to a frame it has already tracked again. Try to see if you can find the problem with this code. Is it that we can't write to the same memory more than once in a threaded program? Is it that the threads will go into an infinite loop? Is it that this bufavail isn't updated atomically? Or is it that each thread has its own bufavail variable.

What is the Problem With This Code

The answer is c. We are indeed allowed to write to memory more than once in a threaded program, so its not that. The threads will indeed go into an infinite loop, but that's intentional. We want our tracker to run continuously. Actually since bufavail is a global variable, it's shared among the threads. So that eliminates this option. The real problem is that bufavail might get out of sync. Going back to the code, observe that these two lines might get executed at about the same time. Our fear is that something like the following might happen. The Incrementing line might take the value currently in memory 3, load it up, but then gets suspended. And then control goes to the Decrementing line which loads the value 3 into memory and then decrements it, turning that value in the CPU register here to 2. And then copying that back to memory, making this finishes, it should restore it back to 3. But it doesn't, because it's already done its load. So instead when it goes to do its increment, it changes the value to 4 and then writes that value into memory, meaning that we have a value one higher here than we should. And as you can imagine, this might through our queue out of sync if this happened too many times.

Mutex Lock

Now, in real life if I want to keep other people from taking my things or messing with things they shouldn't, I use a lock to stop them. In threaded programming, we use a similar concept to protect memory. Let's say that inside some procedure, there's a block where I manipulate some data, in our example, the variable a. And I need to be sure that no other thread touches this variable while I am working on it. Whether executing this procedure or another one. Well then, I can declare a lock variable, which should reside in shared memory, and put the lock on before I have it do my manipulation, and unlock it afterwards. And I should do the same wherever I manipulate this variable a. If some other thread running this code simply accesses the shared resource without using the lock, it won't be able to stop him. But if he does try to acquire the lock first, then this call to mutex lock will block until the lock variable shows that has been unlocked. And only then will this code proceed. And, of course, if the schedule had worked things out so that this call had been called first, then he would get the lock. And this call to acquire the mutex lock would block until this data manipulation was finished, and the mutex variable had been unlocked. And this way the threads are able to mutually exclude each other from using resources, hence these are called mutex locks.

Which Thread is Running

A section of code that shouldn't be executed by more than one thread is called critical. This diagram shows the states of four threads running a single process, all running the same code, with the green arrow indicating the line of control, that is, where the tread is in it's execution. The boxes denote the critical sections. Check the treads that could be running right now.

Which Thread is Running

And the answer, is all of them, expect the one that is right before the critical block. This first one is in the middle of the critical section, so he's running. This next one is before the critical section, so he has some work to do before he needs to stop. This third one is past the critical section, so he's fine continuing on. Only this fourth one, only for him would the next statement to execute be in this critical section. So only he needs to pause and wait for this first thread to finsih the critcal seciton so that he can then enter it.

What is Wrong With This Program

Let's use this new knowledge to add mutual exclusion to our digitizer, tracker program. Hopefully now we won't have the same problem but before, were we could end up reading from a frame that was only half filled with the data we wanted, because bufavail got out of sync. So we'll create a new mutex lock variable. And we will set this lock Before we do our manipulation and unset it afterwards. We'll do that both in the digitizer part and then also in the tracker part. What's wrong with this program? Does it not have any concurrency? Will we end up with deadlock, where there's no thread to run? Is it that two threads cannot use the same lock? Or is it that two procedures cannot use the same lock?

What is Wrong With This Program

The answer is, that the program doesn't have any concurrency. The two threads can't run at the same time anymore. One of them will always be able to run, so there's no dead lock. And of course, two threads can use the same block. That's kind of the whole point, and two procedures can too as we've seen in a previous example.

What is Wrong With This 2nd Program

We do have a major problem with concurrency. The lock makes essentially the whole body of the code critical, while the digitizer is doing his work, the mutex lock will prevent the tracker from doing his work and similarly, while the tracker is doing his work, the lock will prevent the digitizer from doing his work. All parallelism is lost. Okay, okay. So we put too much code in the critical section. Remember, that our original problem arose when both threads were trying to modify bufavail. If we're able to stop that, then we achieve mutual exclusion on the buf frame array. Let's just try putting the lock around our changing and accessing of the bufavail variable. What's wrong with this program?

What is Wrong With This 2nd Program

This time, the answer is dead lock. We now have the potential for all the threads could be waiting for a condition that will not happen. Specifically, if the tracker were to find that bufavail were equal to MAX, then the thread would stage in this loop, waiting for bufavail to change. But it wouldn't be able to change because the other thread is waiting for it to give the lock back. It might be stuck on this mutex lock call right here.

How to Solve the Problem

One way to solve the problem is to simply stop using the mutext lock on the while statement. This sets off something called the sync race where one thread is quickly reading a variable and a while loop, or spinning on it, as it waits for another thread to change the value of a variable. Because the spinning thread is just checking the valuable of a variable over and over. It can't possibly interfere with anything the other thread is doing. So we can be reasonably confident this is correct. This turns out to be a fine way for threads to communicate, this sync race, that is. Actually, if this spinning thread has its own processor or core to run on, then it will resume its execution very quickly, which can be a good thing. However, if processing time is at premium, then all this spinning is just wasted. Hence the motivation for another important feature of thread libraries, conditional wait variables.

Mutex vs Synchronization

Before talking about conditional weight variables, I want to make a distinction between mutual exclusion and synchronization. Mutual exclusion, as we have seen, is about preventing two threads from accessing a resource, often a piece of memory, at the same time regardless of exactly where they are in their execution. For example, if Thread 1 is accessing this memory, then the lock should block Thread 2 from accessing it or vice versa. If Thread 2 is accessing the piece of memory then the lock should block Thread 1 from accessing it. Synchronization, by contrast, is about controlling where the threads are in the flow of their executions. For instance, it might be important that Thread 1 completes some task A before Thread 2 can start task B. In effect, we want the message that A happened to get sent to thread B. Mutual exclusion and synchronization are related. But it is important as a program to know which of these goals you are after so that you can use the right constructs.

Conditional Wait Variables

Most simply, conditional wait variables allow you to take one thread off the scheduling que until there is a signal from another thread, that it should be put back on. This is useful if we don't want one thread to continue it's work until the work of another thread is finished. To give an example, let's oppose that we have a thread A over here, and a thread B over here. Thread B wants to stop until thread A's work is done. Now to use a conditional weight variable, we need three things. A variable indicating whether the work is done, or some other condition that can be tested in memory. A lock that we can apply to this variable... And a special conditional wait variable. Now after finishing the work, thread A is going to acquire the lock, change is_done to true and then send a signal to anyone waiting on this condition, a signal that they should wake up, and then he'll unlock the lock. Thread B, for his part, will first acquire the lock, and then check if the work is done. If it isn't, he will wait. Now, it's important that this cond-wait not only makes thread B wait, but it also unlocks a mutex. This will allow thread A to acquire the lock and eventually send the signal. The call blocks until the signal is received and thread B acquires the lock again. Hence the need to unlock it at the end of the code. At first this might seem unnecessarily complicated. Why do we need this if statement, before the cond_wait procedure call, for instance? Well, if it weren't there, then it's possible that the signal will have already come, and we would never see it. So it's important to check that there's something to wait for, before you actually wait. Given that there is such a condition to check We better also have a lock for it. Otherwise we might decide that we need to wait. But before we actually execute the wait function, the signal might come. And of course, the cond-wait method had better unlock the mutex. Otherwise thread A would never be able to acquire and change the condition that we're waiting on.

Returning to Digital Tracker

Returning to our digital tracker, remember that we were still left with the problem of busy waiting. We were wasting CPU cycles, just waiting for another thread to change the value of the variable. We're going to solve this problem, by creating an additional weight variable. So the code will look like this. Instead of having a wow loop and whether the condition is met that does nothing, the wow loop now makes a call to cond_wait. CPU's cycle save. The second thing to notice is that the new text variable is back, and it gets passed in along with the conditional wait variable into the cond_wait procedure. We do this because we want to make sure that the condition, in this while loop still holds when we put the thread onto the wait variable Q. The nightmare scenario is that in between this check and the call to cond_wait, another thread changes the condition and sends the signal. Then we could be waiting for a signal that might never come. So it's a good practice to lock variables that might cause the condition to change before you make the cond_wait call. The cond_wait method itself puts the active thread on a waiting queue, and then unlocks the new text so that another thread can change the condition we are waiting on. When the conditional signal comes, the method then reacquires the box before returning, that's why we need to unlock it again down here. Now, somewhat surprisingly, we need to recheck our waiting predicate that is, is bufavail equal to zero again before moving on. That's why we have the while statement here instead of an if. The reason for this is that we might not have been the first thread to acquire the lock. Another thread might have acquired it first and changed back the condition to something where we would need to wait again. In this digitizer example I guess maybe that would be another tracker. Putting this in a while loop so that we recheck the predicate after the signal comes is called rechecking the predicate.

Program Analysis

Now let's make sure that this program has all the properties we want. Namely, concurrency, absence of deadlock, and mutual exclusion of the important shared memory. Does it have concurrency? For this, we just need to convince ourselves that the critical sections of the code are short. This critical section here is just decrementing a variable and sending a signal. Not much work to be done there. And the tracker does the analogous thing. So we're okay on that front. The top two blocks, just this one and this one, these just check the condition and then call the wait procedure. And then they immediately unlock afterwards. So this also is short. Okay, so let's check off concurrency. The absence of deadlock, we can convince ourselves that both threads are never blocked. We can see that the mutex_lock can't be responsible for a deadlock because both the producer and consumer give up the lock writing after acquiring it, just as we argued about concurrency. There isn't much work to be done here. Nor is there much going on up here. It's just a matter of checking the value of the bufavail variable. That leaves the possibility that we get blocked on one of these cond wait calls. Let's suppose that a digitizer is blocked on this line. Because he's waiting for bufavail to be greater than zero. Let's suppose that the digitiser is blocked because he's waiting for a signal saying that bufavail is greater than zero. We know that right after condwait was called bufavail was zero. Remember we had the lock at the time. This means that the tracker can't possibly be blocked on its wait because that would imply that bufavail were equal to max. We also know that our digitizer unlocks the newtext variable. Again, that's part of the cond wait call. Hence, our tracker can't be blocked on this while he tries to acquire the lock either. Eventually, the tracker will get around to incrementing bufavail and then sending the signal back to the digitizer thread. And so we can be confident that eventually, this signal will arrive and we'll exit this procedure. The argument is analogous if we suppose that the tracker is waiting on cond wait. That means the digitizer will be able to make progress and eventually decrement bufavail and send the signal. Alright, so hopefully we've convinced ourselves that there's no deadlock. Lastly, we want to convince ourselves, that we have achieved mutual exclusion of the necessary shared memory. Well, the use of this mutex box, around all the, accesses and rights to bufavail should convince ourselves that we don't have a race there. That leaves the frame buff variable. But the logic of the program, that is the logic of the ring buffer that we talked about earlier, prevents the head from ever catching up with the tail, or vice versa, as they chase each other around the ring buffer. In fact that's the whole point of the buff avail variable. So mutual exclusion is achieved, and our program has all three properties that we desired.


Phew, some of that was pretty technical, but if you followed along, you now have a solid understanding of the semantics of threaded programming. You are now familiar with the notions of joinable and detached threads, locks, synchronization, and many of the details of the p threads library. Of course, you will learn much more if you get involved in developing an application that uses threaded programming, but now at least you have a good foundation to start from. Happy programming.