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Glossary

LESSON 1

  • Behavioral Neuroscience
    • The study of links among brain, mind, and behavior
  • Biological Psychology
    • The study of the relationship between bodily systems and chemicals and how they influence behavior
  • Clinical Psychology
    • The diagnosis and treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.
  • Cognition
    • Mental activities involved in acquiring and processing information
  • Cognitive Psychology
    • The study of how people perceive, remember, think, speak, solve problems, and make decisions. This branch of psychology is concerned with all forms of cognition.
  • Developmental Psychology
    • The study of how thought and behavior change or remain stable across the lifetime
  • Evolutionary Psychology
    • The study of human behavior by asking what adaptive problems it have solved for our early ancestors
  • Experimental psychology
    • The study of psychological processes through controlled experiments
  • Forensic Psychology
    • Field of psychology that blends law, criminal justice, and psychology
  • Health Psychology
    • The study of the role psychological factors play in our health and illness
  • Humanistic Psychology
    • A theory of psychology that focuses on personal growth as a way of reaching one’s highest potential
  • Industrial /Organizational (IO) Psychology
    • Application of psychological concepts and questions to the work setting
  • Personality Psychology
    • The study of individual differences. The branch of psychology studies what makes people unique and the consistencies in people’s behavior across time and situations
  • Personnel Psychology
    • A branch of Industrial/Organizational psychology devoted to job analysis, job satisfaction, personnel selection and placement, and training employees
  • Phobia
    • An anxiety disorder: an ongoing and irrational fear of a particular object, situation, or activity.
  • Positive Psychology
    • Scientific approach to studying, understanding, and promoting healthy and positive psychological functioning
  • Psychology
    • The scientific study of thought and behavior.
  • Social Psychology
    • The study of how living among others influences thought, feeling, and behaviors.
    • Areas of interest include but are not limited to attitudes, social compliance, conformity, obedience to authority, interpersonal attraction, group processes, and non-verbal communication
  • Sports Psychology
    • The study of psychological factors associated with athletic performance.

Lesson 2

  • Bell Curves
    • See Normal Distribution
  • Control Group
    • In an experimental design a comparison group of participants who are not exposed to the treatment (Independent variable) but are identical to the experimental group to provide a baseline for evaluating the effects of a treatment (IV)
  • Correlation Coefficients
    • A statistic that ranges from -1.0 to +1.0 and assesses the strength and direction of a relationship between variables.
  • Correlational Study
    • Studies that measure two or more variables and their relationship to one another.
    • Correlational studies are not designed to show causation.
  • Dependent Variable
    • What we measure; the variable that is effected by the independent variable
  • Double Blind Studies
    • Studies in which neither the researcher or participant know who is assigned to the control or experimental group
  • Experimental Group
    • In an experimental design the group of participants who are exposed to the treatment (Independent variable) or whatever is predicted to change behavior
  • Experimental Study
    • A research design that includes independent and dependent variables and random assignment of participants to the control or experimental groups or conditions
  • Independent Variable
    • The variable that you manipulate or change
  • Informed Consent
    • A policy of informing study participants about the procedures and risks involved in a research study that ensures that all participants must give their consent to participate
  • Hypothesis
    • A specific, informed, and testable proposed explanation of a phenomenon
  • Mean
    • Average of numbers obtained by adding all of the values and dividing by the number of values
  • Normal Distribution
    • Bell curve; a plot of how frequent data are that is perfectly symmetrical, with most scores clustering in the middle and only a few scores at the extremes
  • Objective Measure
    • Unbiased measurement/analysis
    • Example: physiological measures (e.g. heart rate, sweating)
  • Placebo
    • Substance or treatment that seems to be identical to the actual treatment but it does not have the active substance
  • Random Assignment
    • The method used to assign participants to different research conditions so that all participants have the same chance of being in any specific group
  • Self-Report Measure
    • Written or oral accounts of a person’s thoughts, feelings, or actions
  • Single Blind
    • Studies in which participants do not know what group they are assigned to (control or experimental group) but the researcher does
  • Standard Deviation
    • A statistical measure telling you how much scores in a sample vary around the mean
  • Theory
    • Well-substantiates and unifying explanation for a set of proven hypotheses
  • Variable
    • Any Characteristic that can change or vary across individuals or across time within the same individuals
    • Example- Gender, age, anxiety, and intelligence
  • Statistically Significant
    • It is highly unlikely that was found was due to chance
  • Institutional Review Board (IRB)
    • Reviews and approves experiments with human subjects
  • Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)
    • Reviews and approves experiments with animal subjects

Lesson 3

Evolution of Human: Effect of Natural Selection Brain's development makes human unique

Building blocks called nucleotides that consists of three parts: • -A phosphate group, • -A 5-carbon sugar • -Four nitrogenous bases [Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), Cytosine(C)] • Over 3 billion of these letters (A, T, G, C) in a unique sequence • ->DNA+23 pairs of chromosomes (long strands of DNA wrapped around proteins, used to organize info structurally) • ->2% of genes code proteins (others turn off)

Genome: Total amount of genetic info • Genes as dominant allele (traits) covers the effects of recessive allele (traits) • Traits influenced by multiple genes: polygenic • Traits influenced by single genes: monogenic

Molecular tags (a.k.a. Methyl Groups) influence DNA by turning genes on or off in identical sequences. This is a way that the environment influence creatures.

Nervous System: a network of nerves & cells that pass the messages through humans' bodies. • -Central Nervous System (CNS) o Combined by o -Brain o -Spinal Cord • -Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) o -Somatic Nervous System: transmit sensory info. o -Autonomic Nervous System: controls involuntary system like internal organs • -Sympathetic: fight/flight response • -Parasympathetic: normally relaxed state

Neuron Neuron: smallest unit of communication.

-Types of neurons: • -1.Sensory neuron: receive info from outside • -2.Interneuron: connect neurons & transmit info • -3.Motor neurons: receive message from the brain & control muscles

-Drugs affect the connection between neurons: • -Reuptakes (e.g. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, SSRI. Used to decrease serotonins) • -Enzymes • Effects of neurotransmitters: • -Inhibitors: decrease strength of signals • -Excitatory: increase strength of signals Glial Cells: provide support for neurons & remove cellular debris.

Ways of communications in neuron system: • -1.Action potentials (inside one neuron) • -2.Neurotransmitters (between neurons) o -Some important neurotransmitters in the study of psychology are: -Dopamine -Serotonin -Acetylcholine -GABA -Glutamate • Hebbs’ law: neurons that wired together fires together • Neuro-plasticity: neurons grow & develop when used & stimulated by experience if they are not used, they die off

Brain • The Cerebrum can be distributed into 4 major lobes: o -1.Frontal lobe o (Functions: attention, working memory, impulse control, creativity, abstract reasoning & thinking) o -2.Parietal lobe o -3.Occipital lobe o -4.Temporal lobe

Brain Activity Measuring Methods: • -1.Electroencephalography (EEG)

• -2.Positron Emission Tomography Scan (PET scan) o -It measures blood flow to brain areas that are activated o -Ingest harmless radioactive oxygen or glucose

• -3.Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PMRI) o -Measure blood flow using magnetic fields to detect activated brain areas o -Very precise