t-tests test for differences between groups. However, if you read that information carefully, you may notice something problematic. t-tests usually use a confidence level of 95%, but that means one in every twenty tests could be flawed. What if we want to compare five different groups for differences between any pair of groups? We would need twenty comparisons, raising the odds of getting a false positive.
An Analysis of Variance, or ANOVA, test helps prevent this by giving one test that compares for differences among multiple groups. Below are some sources on ANOVA:
Again, you generally won't do the math for an ANOVA by hand. Instead, use one of these calculators:
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